Your Questions About Fitness

Michael asks…

How much should a 12 year old weigh?

My daughter is twelve years old and her height is 4’11. I have a feeling she is under eating, because she only weighs 79 pounds. How much should an average 4’11 twelve year old girl weigh?

The Expert answers:

“A 12 year old (female) child who is 79 pounds and is 4 feet and 11 inches tall has a body mass index of 16.0, which is at the 17th percentile, and would indicate that your child is at a healthy weight.”

James asks…

What kind of math do I have to take in order to become a pediatrician?

What kind of technology do pediatricians use?

The Expert answers:

In school, whether you are taking geometry, algebra, or calculus, it is hard to understand how it applies to what you will be doing later in life.
Not surprisingly, math is good and necessary in almost any profession, especially for doctors.
Although the average Pediatrician doesn’t remember all of the calculus he learned and likely doesn’t use it much, most Pediatricians do use math to solve every day problems when treating their patients.
Although parents are used to thinking about their child’s growth in terms of pounds, inches, and feet, most calculations in medicine are done using the metric system. So Pediatricians need to know how to easily convert measurements, especially between pounds and kilograms.
The average Pediatrician writes many prescriptions each day. These prescriptions include medicines ranging from antibiotics and cough and cold medicines to drugs to treat asthma and allergies, and the dosages for most of these medications are determined by a child’s weight.
So when a Pediatrician writes a prescription for amoxicillin for a child’s ear infection, she has to first consider the child’s weight and the medication’s dosage. For amoxicillin, that standard dosage is 45mg/kg divided in a twice a day dosage. If the child weighs 22 pounds, that is 10kg (22 pounds x 1 pound/2.2 kg), and his dose is going to be 225mg twice a day (10kg x 45mg/kg = 450mg a day – which is then divided into a twice a day dose).
Pediatricians also use math to calculate a child’s rate of intraveneous fluids.
Body Mass Index
There are many other calculations that Pediatricians do on a regular basis when taking care of their patients. Once of the most well known of these calculations is the one used to calculate a child’s body mass index, which can help determine if they are overweight, underweight, or at a healthy weight.
The standard formula for body mass index is: (weight in kilograms)/(height in meters)
Depending on what specialty you are in, there are many other times that a Pediatrician will use math:
A Pediatrician who does research often must use statistics when presenting their findings.
A Pediatric Cardiologist might use math formulas to figure out how well a child’s heart is working.
A Pediatric Nephrologist (kidney specialist) will often use math to see if a child’s kidneys are functioning properly.
And the list goes on and on, from Pediatric Pulmonologists using math to interpret a child’s pulmonary function tests to an Infectious Disease specialist using math to determine if a child has good levels of antibiotics in his bloodstream.

Lisa asks…

What is the average weight of a girl that is 11 years old and ft tall?

What is the average weight? I think thids person may be overweight.

The Expert answers:

(The height is missing from your question).If you go to www.calorie-count.com you can find a body-mass index calculator. You type in the weight & height, and it gives you a number based on the ratio, and tells you if it’s normal, under- or overweight.
For an 11 yr old though, you probably shouldn’t worry unless the child is obese, or borderline-obese. Metabolism changes a lot after puberty.

Jenny asks…

What are the symptoms of a vitamin D deficiency?

I haven’t been out in the sun a lot for a while now. I was indoors for basically all the Summer and it’s almost Winter now. I don’t think I was even outside much before Summer. Could this help cause a vitamin D deficiency?
By the way, I’m 16, overweight, and tan.

The Expert answers:

Symptoms and Health Risks of Vitamin D Deficiency
Symptoms of bone pain and muscle weakness can mean you have a vitamin D deficiency. However, for many people, the symptoms are subtle. Yet even without symptoms, too little vitamin D can pose health risks. Low blood levels of the vitamin have been associated with the following:

Increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease
Cognitive impairment in older adults
Severe asthma in children
Cancer
Research suggests that vitamin D could play a role in the prevention and treatment of a number of different conditions, including type1 and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and multiple sclerosis.

Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency
Vitamin D deficiency can occur for a number of reasons:

You don’t consume the recommended levels of the vitamin over time. This is likely if you follow a strict vegetarian diet, because most of the natural sources are animal-based, including fish and fish oils, egg yolks, cheese, and beef liver.

Your exposure to sunlight is limited. Because the body makes vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sunlight, you may be at risk of deficiency if you are homebound, live in northern latitudes, wear long robes or head coverings for religious reasons, or have an occupation that prevents sun exposure.

You have dark skin. The pigment melanin reduces the skin’s ability to make vitamin D in response to sunlight exposure. Some studies show that older adults with darker skin are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency.

Your kidneys cannot convert vitamin D to its active form. As people age their kidneys are less able to convert vitamin D to its active form, thus increasing their risk of vitamin D deficiency.

Your digestive tract cannot adequately absorb vitamin D. Certain medical problems, including Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis, and celiac disease, can affect your intestine’s ability to absorb vitamin D from the food you eat.

You are obese. Vitamin D is extracted from the blood by fat cells, altering its release into the circulation. People with a body mass index of 30 or greater often have low blood levels of vitamin D.

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Ruth asks…

Am I at a healthy weight or do I need to loose a few pounds?

I’m 13 and 6 months and I weigh 136 lbs. Im 5 foot 6in and female. Is that normal?? I’ve heard a few people say that I need to loose a few pounds or people dropped hints that I’m over weight. Can you please tell me what you think?

The Expert answers:

Ideal body weight calculator for children and adults:
http://pediatrics.about.com/cs/growthcharts2/l/bl_ibw_calc.htm

Body Mass Index calculator for children and adults:
http://www.keepkidshealthy.com/welcome/bmicalculator.html

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Your Questions About Fitness

Paul asks…

How can building muscle eventually help burn fat?

I know they say building muscle is no good if you don’t burn your fat first because then all you’ll get is muscle and fat and you’ll look even bigger. But I also heard that building muscle can eventually burn fat….

The Expert answers:

Muscle doesn’t burn fat, it burns calories. Your body uses the fat to supply the calories. Muscle burns calories because it (a) takes a lot of calories to build muscle, and it takes calories to maintain the muscle.

It’s the main reason men tend to lose fat easier than women. We have, generally, more muscle content in our bodies, so we burn more calories per minute than women. So, if you reduce calorie intake it’s easier to lose fat.

Lizzie asks…

What’s the best protein drink to build muscle?

Hi im a 23 yo female, I weight 110, is there a good protein drink that can help me get toned and build muscle? I workout everyday I want to tone especially my legs. Thanks

The Expert answers:

Whey protein is one the best, and no it doesn’t cost that much. Buy it at walmart, or online at bodybuilding.com.
Isolate protein is more expensive. Expecially for you, you’re a woman who weight 110 lbs, so 20g per dosage would be enough

David asks…

How to lose weight but not put on muscle?

I got this fitness DVD yeah, cos I want to lose weight but the woman goes on about building muscle! I just want skinny legs and a flat belly! No abs or unnessacry muscle! Is there any sort of food that will do this or is it just the right kind of exercise? Please help and thanks to people that will do ! 🙂 xxxx

The Expert answers:

Building muscle doesn’t mean you’ll look like a bodybuilder. Women don’t have sufficient testosterone to build bulky muscles without steroids. Muscles eat fat while you rest, sleep, etc. Tone is attractive on women anyways. You could always try jogging and jumprope though, you’ll have to do a lot of cardio if you don’t do some strength training. A combination of both is the best way for a good physique.

Mark asks…

if im a bigger girl and i want to start lifting weights, will building muscle make my arms look bigger?

right now im about 233lbs, and i want to start toning and building some muscle in my arms, but im nervous that the muscle will build over the fat and make my arms look bigger. idk if thats true (probably not) but im jw. my goal weight is around 140lbs and im also doing cardio (fast walking) for 2 miles in the morning and 2 miles in the afternoon.only serious answers please.thanks.

The Expert answers:

Im am a bigger girl as well 🙂 I was told it is different for a woman,, we tend to get more toned naturally than end up like body builders.. Unless we take steroids O.o ( I dont know how accurate this is .. But it was a female gym instructor that told be this)

besides that.. If you dont want to build muscle, just tone, you need to be pulling lower weights for more reps..

Where as building muscle requires you pull higher weights for less reps..

Hope this made sense..

Dont forget to be* eating right* as well x (I highly suggest slimming world or weight watchers)
and goodluck

Lisa asks…

How to lose weight and build muscle?

So Ive heard many different ideas. Some people say to do weights first and then do cardio, but some say to do cardio and then weights. Does it really matter?

Also, when I go to the gym, I don’t like to go to the huge weights an bench press area because I get uncomfortable by all the huge guys (I’m a 15 year old girl) so to build muscle can I just do like 10 lbs weights and pushups and stuff? Thanks!

The Expert answers:

First, your question about whether to do weights training before cardio or cardio before weight training. This can be looked at a couple different ways.

If you are talking about which order to them during ONE workout session, then it is up to you. Both weight lifting and cardio activity burn calories. Now it’s always smart to warm up with a little bit of cardio before weight lifting, just to loosen up your joints, muscles, and to get your blood a’pumpin.. But some people enjoy doing their 15-30 minutes before the weights, and some enjoy it after. I personally do my cardio after weight training.

If you are talking about whether to do cardio or weights first over a course of time, say.. Lose weight with cardio for a couple weeks, then do weights only for a couple weeks.. That is generally not a very great idea. You may find it frustrating to lose weight strictly with cardio workouts, as it gets boring and repetitive. Also, the more lean muscle that is on your body, the faster your metabolism, and the faster you will lose weight!! So, knowing this, an even combination of weight training + mild cardio would do wonders for you. You will wind up have some nice definition when you cut down rather than just being skinny.

Your second question.
Yes, as a female you can build some decent lean muscle with just pushups and light weights. However, you will get tremendously better results if you include a variety of exercises, weight ranges, and planes of motion to your workout. Most women think if they workout like that they are gonna lose their breasts, get HUGE biceps and 6-packs and stuff…. No. The women that have that stuff are simply on steroids, and make it their goal to look like that. Training with the whole gym will make a normal girl like yourself look fantastic.

About the big guys at the gym. All women tend to think those guys at the gym are big and mean and turn to you and yell at you or something.. Also not true. They are more then likely very nice, and just there to get their workout done so they can leave. No need to worry about what they think of you, or if you accidentally “get in their way”. Unless they obviously have a temper problem, don’t worry about it!

I hope a helped.

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Your Questions About Fitness

Mark asks…

Essential things to do as a teenager to maintain health in later years?

I’m a teenage girl and the word “calcium” has been driven into my vocabulary since I was 12. I know that women start losing their bone mass early in life, so stock up on calcium now. Any other secrets that I haven’t been let in on? Any vitamins that are essential to a teenager or a girl specifically? Nutrition tips for a teenage girl besides the whole “eat your vegetables” deal?

The Expert answers:

-You also need vitamin d in order to deposit calcium into your bones. Most dairy milks and most soy or almond milks are fortified with vitamin D, or you can just spend 20 minutes in the sun without sunscreen several times a week.

-fruits and veggies! I know you said besides this, but seriously… Fruits and veg have vitamins, minerals, fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals, and are naturally low in fat and calories and cholesterol-free. They protect against cancer, kidney stones, t2 diabetes, CVD, stroke, and help prevent bone loss.

-choose whole wheat products instead of refined. They cause less of a blood sugar spike, and therefore lower triglyceride levels.

-cut down on animal products, particularly ‘land meat’ (red meat and poultry) and eggs. According to the ADA and AHA:
“Vegetarian diets are often associated with a number of health advantages, including lower blood cholesterol levels, lower risk of heart disease, lower blood pressure levels, and lower risk of hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index (BMI) and lower overall cancer rates. Vegetarian diets tend to be lower in saturated fat and cholesterol, and have higher levels of dietary fiber, magnesium and potassium, Vitamins C and E, folate, carotenoids, flavonoids, and other pytochemicals.”
-American Dietic Association, Position Paper on Vegetarian Diets, 2009
“Many studies have shown that vegetarians seem to have a lower risk of obesity, coronary heart disease (which causes heart attack), high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and some forms of cancer. “
“Studies show that vegetarians absorb and retain more calcium from foods than nonvegetarians do.”
-American Heart Association, 2010
Every Blue Zone (http://www.bluezones.com/) has a plant-based diet. The more plant foods your diet includes the better- and no, sugarcane doesn’t count 🙂

EXERCISE! Reduces your risk of cancer, obesity, t2 diabetes, osteoporosis, increases longevity, improves cognitive ability, prevents CVD, lowers blood pressure, strengthens your immune systems, benefits your GI…. I’m sure you’ve heard its good for you, but most people don’t know just how good. Even 10-15 minutes a day will make a difference, it all adds up 🙂

Sharon asks…

Hi can someone tell me what clomid is please?

Have heard of other women ttc and they are using clomid.

The Expert answers:

Many women with fertility problems are prescribed clomifene, a drug which makes you more likely to ovulate each month. It is a well established treatment and the most widely used fertility drug.

Who might benefit?

Women who ovulate irregularly or not at all, including those with polycystic ovaries or polycystic ovary syndrome. Clomifene is also used in cases of unexplained infertility (NCCWCH 2004: 58).

How does it work?

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The active ingredient in clomifene is clomifene citrate, an anti-oestrogen drug which is taken in pill form. It works by causing an increase in the levels of two hormones which in turn cause stimulation of the ovaries and release of an egg.
First it tells your pituitary gland to produce or make more of the hormones that trigger ovulation (follicle-stimulating hormone or FSH). This prompts your ovaries to get a number of your eggs ready. Then, once you finish your drug cycle, your hypothalamus (the part of your brain that regulates basic functions, such as temperature) will release luteinising hormone (LH). This tells your ovaries it’s time to release a mature egg from its follicle and send it into one of your fallopian tubes. That is ovulation.

How long will the treatment last?

You start taking clomifene about three to five days into your monthly menstrual cycle, and continue taking it for about five days. Ovulation generally occurs five to nine days after the last pill. Your doctor will usually monitor you for at least the first cycle of treatment using ultrasound to see whether your ovaries are preparing an egg follicle and releasing the egg into one of your fallopian tubes.

Most women will go through a maximum of three to six drug cycles: it can take a month or two of drug therapy to start ovulating regularly. If it doesn’t prove successful after six months, your doctor will probably start discussing other options with you. However, it is recommended that treatment can continue for up to 12 cycles, probably with a gap between courses of treatment, because there is more chance of ovulation starting if treatment is continued for this long (NCCWCH 2004: 58).

If you have polycystic ovary syndrome this treatment may not work for you, as 15 to 40 per cent of women with PCOS are resistant to clomifene (Beck et al 2005). This is more common in women who have a BMI (body mass index) greater than 25. In this case, your doctor may recommend that you try to lose some weight. Even a modest weight loss of about five per cent of your body weight can help improve your chances of ovulation.

Your doctor may also prescribe metformin, an insulin-sensitising drug. Metformin can help you respond to clomifene and has been shown to increase the chances of ovulating and getting pregnant (NCCWCH 2004: 58-9).

When else might clomifene be prescribed?

You might also take clomifene (and other fertility drugs) before you undergo a fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), to encourage you to produce several eggs for the procedure. Clomifene can help men with certain hormonal imbalances linked to a low sperm count, or poor sperm quality or motility (its ability to move). (Find out more about fertility drugs for men.)

Are there any side effects?

Fertility drugs can cause a wide range of minor side effects, including mood swings, mild ovarian swelling, stomach pain, breast tenderness, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, headaches, fatigue, irritability, depression, weight gain and, in rarer cases, ovarian cysts.

It can also cause your cervical mucus to become drier, so you may want to use a vaginal lubricant that is sperm-friendly.

One study in the mid-1990s suggested that the risk of ovarian cancer in later life might be increased after more than 12 cycles of treatment (Rossing et al 1994). However, successive reviews and studies have failed to find a strong link between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer, Findings suggest that it is the infertility problem itself that may increase the risk, rather than the fertility drugs used to treat it (Ness et al 2002; Brinton et al 2004; Rossing et al 2004).

Women who take clomifene with other fertility drugs, such as human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG), sometimes develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) (NCCWCH 2004: 67);>, although this rarely happens with clomifene on its own (Beck et al 2005). This is a potentially serious condition signalled by weight gain and a full, bloated feeling. OHSS occurs when you respond too well to the drugs and produce too many eggs. Normally this resolves itself with careful monitoring by your doctor, but in rare cases it can be life threatening. Find out more about OHSS and the symptoms to look out for.

What is the success rate?

Most couples are interested in two success statistics: the ovulation rate and the pregnancy rate. Fertility drugs are quite successful at stimulating ovulation: about 70 pe

Lizzie asks…

Is there anyway to improve my chance of having twins?

I’ve always wanted to have twins, and I was just wondering if anyone had any information about being pregnant with twins in general, but also if there are any techniques to improve the chance that I will have twins. There is no history of multiple births in my family.

The Expert answers:

Grow or Gain Weight
A recent study published by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology correlates the rise in multiple birth rates with rising rates of obesity. Research found that mothers with a BMI (Body Mass Index) of 30 or higer were significantly more likely to have twins. Again, this statistic only holds true for fraternal (dizygotic) twins. The research also showed that women of above-average height were also more likely to have multiples.

Grow Up: Wait Until You’re Older
Older mothers are more likely to conceive twins than their younger counterparts. It’s thought that the body accelerates ovulation as the biological clock starts ticking faster. Seventeen percent of mothers over age 45 have multiples. Wait five more years and the odds rise to one in nine! However, the risks also increase; older mothers have a higher rate of miscarriage and are more likely to experience problems such as gestational diabetes during their pregnancy; in addition, their babies are at higher risk for chromosomal abnormalities.

Diet: Yams & Dairy
No one is quite sure why, but the Yoruba tribe in West Africa has the highest rate of twinning in the world. A study concluded that the mother’s diet was the cause, being high in cassava, a type of yam or sweet potato. The peelings of this vegetable are thought to contain a chemical that causes hyperovulation. In addition, a 2006 study found that women who consume dairy are five times as likely to have twins.

Seek Fertility Assistance
Reproductive technology has dramatically increased the multiple birth rate. Drugs that stimualate ovulation can lead to a multiple pregnancy, but multiples can also result from invitro fertilization. It’s not just that multiple embryos are implanted in the mother, but there is also an unexplained increase in the number of monozygotic twins among IVF patients. No ethical doctor would provide treatment if it wasn’t warranted, so fertility assistance should only be sought out when necessary.

Have A Big Family
The more kids you have, the more likely you are to conceive twins in a subsequent pregnancy. No one knows the magic limit that triggers a multiple pregnancy, so you’ll just have to keep trying until it happens.

Conceive While Breastfeeding
Most people think that you can’t get pregnant while breastfeeding, that the process of lactating keeps a woman from ovulating. However, plenty of mothers of twins can disprove that theory. Some research has supported the theory that the chance of twins or multiples is increased if a woman conceives while breastfeeding.

Get Pregnant On the Pill
Birth control pills are usually thought to be 99.9 percent effective at preventing pregnancy. However, that .01 percent often results in a double whammy — multiples. Sometimes pregnancy occurs when the pill isn’t taken consistently; in other cases, the hormonal mix of a particular drug type simply doesn’t provide enough coverage to completely prevent ovulation. In either case, playing around with hormones can lead to hyperovulation, increasing the chances of multiples.

Just Get Lucky!
Many parents of multiples don’t meet any of the classic criteria, yet find themselves doubly blessed. Monozygotic twins are particularly mysterious; no one is exactly certain what causes an egg to split after conception, producing identical twins. The bottom line is that there truly isn’t a whole lot an individual can do to influence their chances of having twins; sometimes you just get lucky!

You can read more about this here
http://multiples.about.com/od/funfacts/tp/howtohavetwins.htm

Steven asks…

Can having an eating disorder hurt you during surgery?

I don’t know if I have an actual “eating disorder”, but I am trying to lose a lot of weight in a quick amount of time. Whenever I get like this, I barely eat, & when I do, I throw it up. I know it’s bad, & I’m not looking for people to tell me that it’s bad, because at the time, it’s facts. I’m getting surgery on my stomach for endometriosis in a couple weeks, & I’m wondering if sudden weight loss can cause cardiac arrest or anything like that?

The Expert answers:

Having any type of eating disorder is seriously dangerous to your health.

Especially if you’re getting ready for surgery, your body needs to be very strong and healthy, you’re risking a lot here, possibly your life.

I was doing some background research on endometriosis, and i found this.. “Studies further suggest that endometriosis is most common in taller, thin women with a low body mass index (BMI).”

Maybe these eating issues could have brought this on in the first place. Have you ever considered that??

Here’s a website on the long term effects of an eating disorder.
Http://www.thesite.org/healthandwellbeing/mentalhealth/eatingdisorders/eatingdisorderstherisks

My friend got down to 70 pounds before she was admitted into treatment, she was admitted because she had a heart attack at the age of 17.

William asks…

What is the best way to gain normal weight?

I have been underweight like since I was born. I’m not anorexic or bolimic (maybe I have been once, I’m not sure). I am 24 years old 5′ and only weigh 78 lbs (34 k). My activity level is only moderate. I exercise 10min. cardio 3x a week and 15reps (2 sets) of squats with 4k weights 3x a week. I eat cheese and white bread a lot, 1 glass of milk after dinner. Eat 4x a day. I still wonder what I’m doing wrong. Should I just eat lots of nuts and chocolates every day? I’m not into taking whey, protein shakes or anything like that. Please help!

The Expert answers:

See a doctor to come up with a plan but being a underweight according to the body mass index is sometimes okay for your body. Don’t fall for those ‘real women’ campaigns.

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Your Questions About Fitness

Mandy asks…

What are the best exercises to build chest muscle?

So basically my chest measurement is not great, and would like to know what the best weights to do, to build muscle 4 the chest, I would personally like 38/39″ cest measurement

I am completely about clueless regarding weights

My stats:

chest 35“/89cm
waist 31″/79cm
height: 5ft11/181cm
weight: 72kg/15llbs
Thanks guys 4 advice/info, glad got sumthing 2 work with now

The Expert answers:

Ohh Buddy…. Chest workouts are some of the best.

Basically, Bench press is the big daddy. Research this exercise, don’t be like all the idiots at the gym who can’t handle the bar and have awful awful from. You’ll hurt yourself and you won’t progress right. Look up David Tate, he’s good on this.

Also incorporate dumbbell flyes, and make sure to squeeze your chest together at the top of the reps.

Push ups, same movement as bench press, but with a lot more variety. I am a huge fan of the Perfect Push Up (no, it’s not a bra) if you doin em wide and hold at the bottom and it’ll been a good burn. I also do “explosive” push ups (Just sounds hardcore) where you have two blocks and you push from the floor between and throw yourself up and catch yourself on the blocks and go back and forth. Have good floor pads for these, otherwise you’ll hurt your wrists.

These three things are definitely a good start, but only work your chest twice a week. At first, maybe only once. Otherwise you’ll probably be over training and well… That’s just not cool. Do this stuff right, and you’ll poke your chest and it’ll hurt. That’s a good thing. Good luck man.

Susan asks…

When working out, what is the ideal number of reps to do for building muscle?

On my weight machine, if I use four plates I may be able to do 30-35 reps (per set) before I am out of steam, but with five plates I might only get 8-10. If in both cases I am working out until I am unable to keep lifting the weight, wouldn’t the 35 reps build more muscle than the 10? Why do all the published workouts usually use only 8-15 reps?

The Expert answers:

2-5 reps = strength
6-12 reps = hypertrophy (muscle size increase and maintenance)
113+ reps = aerobic and anaerobic endurance NOT “TONE”

Anyway each repetition you do, a certain portion of your muscle fibers contract to create force. This portion is not 100%, it is usually much less and during each repetition your nervous sytem picks the muscle fibers that are being contracted AT RANDOM. Now each time an individual muscle fiber gets contracted, it temporary loses some power… This is why you need rests.

Now in this model you will notice that if a random portion is picked the first rep, and a random portion is picked the second and subsequent sets that some muscle fibers will have contracted more than once. Also some may not have even been contracted at all during the set. When the individual fiber contracts… THAT is the stimulus needed for that individual fiber to increase its size. (When your muscles get bigger you don’t really grow new fibers, just the existing ones get larger)

Now the more force that the muscle puts out, the higher the portion of muscle fibers being contracted. To lift higher weight you need to contract a higher portion of muscle fibers. This is why powerlifters lift at high weight/low reps… They get their body good at contracting a high percentage of fibers during a given rep.

If you were to take this model and try different weights and repetition ranges you would notice that the repetition range of ~6-12 (differs from person to person and even from book to book) or so and the corresponding weight/resistance would be the range at which most fibers would have been contracted by the end of the set. In essence this range gives the greatest stimulus for muscle size increase.

There ya go. They didn’t explain this in my Personal Training book and it took me a long time to find the answer.

Edit: Adding additional info:
As I said before high repetitions is not good for strength or muscle size increase/maintenance. It’s also no good for defition or “toning” CONTRARY TO POPULAR BELIEF. Here’s why:
Tone usually happens when a person has a decent amount of muscle and a low bodyfat %.
When you do high repetitions you leave the anaerobic stage and your body then has to use oxygen and other sources of fuel to keep putting out energy to produce force. Where does some of this fuel come from? Yes some comes from bodyfat BUT MUCH OF IT ALSO COMES FROM YOUR MUSCLES. YOUR BODY BURNS UP YOUR MUSCLE FOR ENERGY! This is the last thing you want for “tone” or definition. Yes you decrease bodyfat a little but by decreasing your muscles your attempts will be in vain.
Think of incredibly high-repetition motion. You have things like cycling and running (not sprints but longer distance) and other endurance training. Do yourself a favor and look at the competitive athletes in these sports… THEY ARE SKINNY AND NOT MUSCULAR AT ALL!
High repetitions work your type 1 muscle fibers. These fibers are good for endurance BUT DO NOT OLD MUCH POTENTIAL WHEN IT COMES TO MAKING MUSCLES BIGGER. These are not the muscle fibers that get you big and muscular at all.
Type 2 muscle fibers are the ones that are good for muscle size growth and are worked during low repetitions (anywhere from 1-12 or 13 reps) but unfortunately when you do high repetitions these muscle fibers are used as food and thus you will lose type 2 muscle size when doing high repetitions.

’nuff said. If someone wants to debate then bring it on.

PS these repetition ranges are good for muscle growth and maintenance but remember you also have to eat more food for your body to have enough resources to make more muscle.
BTW I don’t believe Ronald preacher curled 180lbs with one arm… Most gyms don’t even have dumbbells go that high (if not DBs then how’d he do it?).

Steven asks…

Advice on best workout choice for losing 35 lbs in <6 months?

I’m in the diabetic stage where my doctor tells me I need to lose 35 lbs within the next 6 months. I’ve been doing two miles on the elliptical at various resistance levels and switching off to the treadmill (same distances) 5 days a week. I’m also on weight watchers. Looking to find other workout tips that can lose this weight, there are so many options it seems for building muscle or just toning but I’m looking strictly at weight loss, any ideas would be appreciated.

The Expert answers:

It’s important to think of setting goals and getting to where you are healthy and not to focus on a number.

Think of it like this:
If you are filling a swimming pool with a leak or trying to heat your house, if the in flow is greater than the outflow there will be a gain.

It works for you body. You take in food (calorie is a measure of energy) and you exercise (burn or use up calories to do work/exercise). If you eat a lot you need to move your body a lot.

A lean healthy body with a lot of muscle will burn more calories that a body with a high BMI (body mass index).

Some foods have more calories per ounce (junk food).

Here is a resource that you may find helpful: http://tiny.cc/i9610

Best of luck to you.

Ken asks…

How long does it take to build up endurance again after six months?

Im not running cross country this year to lift and build muscle, track starts in january, and im mostly a track runner, we do the the serious running in febuary so how long would it take?

The Expert answers:

False. You do the serious running to prepare for track in December and January.

You shouldn’t skip fall if you really want to have a good year of track and field. The key is to maintain a level of fitness year round that allows you to crank up the intensity in February and be race ready by the first meet. This means you need some amount of running exercise all year.

You can build muscle and strength while running, even while doing cross country. You have to be running pretty good mileage before it starts to interfere with weight room gains, 35 or more miles per week. And the added strength would make you better on the hills.

Mary asks…

can your body build muscle without carbohydrates?

if you were to eat protein and vegetables and no carbs, could you still build muscle with vigorous excercise?

The Expert answers:

Vegetables are carbohydrates. So are fruits and grains (whole).

You can’t just eat protein, because it is hard on your digestive system. It is good that you are eating vegetables. You do not want your daily caloric intake of protein to exceed 35%. If you get higher than that, then you are making your kidneys work too much.

Drink plenty of water. Get 40 – 65% carbs, 20-35% proteins, and 10 – 25% fats daily.

Yes you can build muscle eating what you asked. Just add some good fat, fruits, whole grains, and starches to your diet.

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Your Questions About Fitness

Helen asks…

Why do people support corporate Monsanto and Agri-Business food products for schools and daily life?

School lunch programs are based on flavor rather than health. Even the weak find flavor more important. More die in the United States of too much food than of too little. Idiot parents buy crap that their kids want not what they want. I propose a fat based on body mass index. Hit these kids and parents in the wallet as they support these food corporations.

The Expert answers:

Because flavor is more economical.

If we are going to have government sponsored food programs, then they need to be focused on health, and not feeding them food that has been altered with a gene gun or pumped full of fully hydrogenated oils for the only purpose of saving money.

More veggies, more organic foods, and more veganism in our schools!

Maria asks…

Im 15 and feeling dizzy and think i have high blood pressure?

Im 15 in good condition, i play hockey and am 5″9 about 140lbs my Body mass index is 8.2 and im not in bad shape. When i do excercise and workout sometimes i all of a sudden get really dizzy and need to sit down for a bit also feels like im going to puke ? This just hapened 3 times and im starting to worry of what this could be . I checked my bloood pressure at the store just to see for fun and it showed up 162/82 or close to that so i tried it at home on a blood pressure machine about 4 more times cause it was concernig and they all came up pretty similar ? What could thiss all be

The Expert answers:

Well it is normal to feel dizzy after exercise. This does not mean you have high blood pressure. I wouldn’t fully trust home tests or tests in CVS or Walgreens. Go to the doctor if you feel concerned and if you do have high blood pressure he/she will put you on meds and hopefully they will do their justice.

Normally, HPB in teens is pretty rare, and if it is diagnosed, it does not usually do harm until later stages in life. Effects of HPB CAN be fatal, such as Strokes, and Heart Attacks. But again, at your age, it is rare.

Hope this helped!!! (:

Mark asks…

what are some truely effective ways to lose weight?

im a female and i am five foot six inches. my current body mass index is 23.6 and i weigh 129 pounds. my goal is to get down to a body mass index of 18.5. Does anyone know any good and effective ways to accomplish that?

The Expert answers:

You really don’t need to lose weight. However, there are many sensible things you can do that will make a tremendous difference over the long term if you really did need to lose weight. It can be done in a healthy way. This is what has worked for me.

Keeping a food journal really does help. It will give you a much better sense of how much you are eating, and when, and why.

Make a few additional small changes – walk everywhere, always use stairs instead of elevators, walk on escalators, get up and move around at least once an hour if your work or your life in general is sedentary, walk every day, use a pedometer. Walking 10,000 steps a day is a really good idea. Build up to a long brisk walk everyday, or most days. Be more active and watch less TV and spend less time on the computer. Buy one piece of exercise equipment to have at home and be strict with yourself about using it. Sometimes you can find mini-steppers or exercise bikes at second hand stores and thrift stores for just a few dollars.

Start a weight lifting routine. Join a gym. Possibly you can find one that has someone who specializes in weight lifting programs for beginners. Weight lifting will increase your metabolism as well as improve posture and appearance overall. Even if you can’t get to the gym you can work out at home using things around the house. Invest in a good weight training book. The Dummies series actually has a good one.

In terms of diet, cut out or reduce things like junk food, pop, fat, fast food. Eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meat, fish. Particularly if you choose a vegetarian lifestyle include natural peanut butter, hummus, dried fruit and nuts. Pay close attention to getting the nutrients your body needs to be healthy.

Make your portion sizes smaller. Use a smaller plate – in our society we have become accustomed to thinking that we need a large plate of food at every meal, and we don’t. About quarter of your plate of food should be protein and at least half of it should be veggies.

Learn to count calories. At your current weight and activity level, you may possibly need about 2000 calories or more to maintain your current weight. So you will lose weight at a reasonable and healthy rate if you cut back to about 1600 or 1700 calories a day.

Eat small amounts frequently, rather than three large meals. Never skip breakfast. Include some protein in your breakfast. It will help get you through the day.

Drink plenty of water, at least 8 big glasses of water a day, and more if it is very hot, if you sweat a lot, or if you are exercising intensely, and eliminate fruit juices. Fruit juices have too many calories, so get your vitamins from fresh fruit, not the juice. You will begin to see changes in your body.

Check out websites about nutrition, exercise, weight training, etc. Here are a few helpful links.

Http://www.nutrawatch.com/
http://www.caloriesperhour.com/
http://www.helpguide.org/life/healthy_eating_diet.htm
http://www.wikihow.com/Lose-Weight-the-Healthy-Way
http://weightloss.about.com/cs/fitness/a/aa011503a.htm
http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/no-weight-workout?page=4

Susan asks…

insurance co that will still insure you if you fall in the overweight category?

I know I am overweight and I know there is no excuse but I am having a hard time finding a company that will insure me because I am over the body mass index. Does anyone have any suggestions other than the state high risk pool or group insurance as neither one of those are options.

The Expert answers:

Obviously, the BEST, cheapest place, would be through an employer, on a group health insurance plan. The other cheapest place, is welfare health insurance – medicaid – if you qualify.

But even if you’re NOT overweight, most people seriously underestimate what health insurance should cost.

Talk to a local health insurance broker, and let the professional try to find coverage for you. They will know what the options are in YOUR STATE.

Thomas asks…

How do you calculate your BMI?

How do you calculate your body mass index using the metric system (ie kilograms and centimetres)? Thanks.

The Expert answers:

Here is a website you can try 🙂
http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/

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Your Questions About Fitness

Helen asks…

How much would health insurance be for me?

I’m 19, a non-smoker, with a body mass index of 19.9. I am in pretty good health, I did have spinal surgery when I was younger and corrective jaw surgery last summer but other than that no pre-existing conditions. I just got dropped from my parents coverage and the job I’m working doesn’t offer me enough hours to be full time and get coverage so I have to buy my own, and I’m wondering how much that will cost.

The Expert answers:

Try this site

http://heinsurance.notlong.com

here you can get quotes from different companies in your area.

Paul asks…

How should I go about dropping my BMI from 30 to 25 in two months?

I’m entering my sophomore year in two months, and I was wondering how I should go about dropping my body mass index from 31 to 25 before that time. My current weight is 215 lbs and my current height is 5’10”.
Also, I just joined my local gym last week. I’ve been running 1.5 miles every day, and will continue to do so (and most likely increase this distance every week).

The Expert answers:

The best way is to work your way into a well-designed high intensity weight training program together with a balanced diet. Two months is a short period of time but it is achievable. What you shouldn’t do is just just cut calories haphazardly. The reason is you will end up later disappointed because you will get fatter than ever later. Deep cutting of calories will initially lead to a loss of water weight followed by the loss of both fat and muscle. This is bad because your body will adapt to fewer calories and now that your body has less muscle, when you revert back to your old eating habits your body will be even more over-nourished than it is now. Your 31 BMI will probably go to 33 or 34 or more.

Joseph asks…

What kind of retail sold scale is the most accurate?

I’m trying to find a new scale, and now they seem to have every different kind. I wasn’t sure if the ones that tell you your body mass index…or the percentage of water to fat…were really accurate, and worth it. Any suggestions would be appreciated, thanks.

The Expert answers:

WW (Weight Watchers) scales work really good.

Mandy asks…

What signs think someone with a BOOTY is fat?

Like petite girls with curvy asses and low body mass indexes? Does this body type make others jealous? If so what signs or placements are likely to get jealous of this body type?

The Expert answers:

That’s the kind of body type I have. I’m short and petite but very curvy :)…nice booty and a nice front :P..I’m done tooting my own horn now LOL I’m 5’1″ and weigh 105..hardly fat.

The jealousy would belong to whomever wanted that kind of body and didn’t have it; obviously.

Maria asks…

How many calories a week to gain 1kg?

How many calories would I have to eat a day to gain 1kg over the course of a week? Also, if my Body/Mass Index is 18.9 (1.87m tall and 66.15kg) how much weight would I have to gain before it’s noticeable?

Thanks.

The Expert answers:

Approx 7,250 calories

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Your Questions About Fitness

Jenny asks…

What physically should I do to prepare for the Naval Academy?

What should I do to get in shape and stay in shape for the academy. Also what can I do to build muscle mass and strength and increase the amount of pushups i can do?

The Expert answers:

Find out if USNA still does the Physical Aptitude Exam (pullups, kneeling bball throw, situps, pushups, shuttle run) for all candidates. Next, learn about the PT test they conduct each semester for midshipmen–pushups, situps, run.

From USNA’s website, here are the PT test minimum standards:
Men Women
1.5 mile run 10:30 12:40
Push-ups (2 mins) 40 18
Sit-ups (2 mins) 65 65

The best exercise to get better at pushups is pushups! You can also do ‘bows and toes (elbows and toes on ground, chest down, hold your back straight for a minute or longer) to build your core muscles. Also try diamond (hands close together) pushups.

You can do pushup pyramids too. Do 10, then rest, do 9, rest, continue all the way to 1, rest, than go back up to 10 again. Lastly, some people like to play cards–each suit is a different exercise (pushups, situps, flutterkicks, diamond pushups) and you do the number of reps for the card you pull–makes it a little more interesting. Also, don’t forget to RUN! Lots of people can do pushups all day, but ask them to run 5k and they’ll practically faint at the thought. Don’t be one of them. Good luck!

James asks…

What are the Best healthiest foods to eat to gain weight?

I am looking to put on large weight to build Muscle mass and I would like to know which foods to buy on a monthly basis from the grocery store that will last and fit in my diet.. I have been hearing Protein is key but im not sure what to buy please help me

The Expert answers:

I believe the healthiest food to eat to help you gain weight is healthy high carb foods and low fibre foods, sugar is good for gaining weight, but too much of it is no good at all, so you may have to eat in moderation. Your ideal goal would be to go for a balanced diet which includes all food groups: Carbs, Protein, Fibre, Dairy etc. Try to eat as much of these as you can, you will need to increase your meal size; for example if you eat 1 portion of rice, go for 2 portions instead. The daily recommended calorie intake for guys is 2500, if you are looking to gain weight, I would advise you to take this up to 3500 using the food groups above. Try to avoid junk food and cook your own food. If your are looking to do this healthily, try to avoid excess sugar and salt in foods. Also I have heard that guys who want to build muscle also use creatine which can be in the form of a drink, you can include this in your diet too, I have seen it work on men all the time, it really works.
You can buy this in any health store, it comes as a milkshake powder or pill form and will help build muscle on the smallest of men.

An example meal plan would be:
Breakfast: 2 slice of toast with egg, Cereal with Milk, a choice of fruit and a glass of orange juice or hot drink (take some creatine)

Lunch: Grilled chicken with homemade oven fries and a choice of veg and salad, a huge glass of water and Yoghurt

Dinner: Spaghetti Bolognese with cheese on top, a helping of veg on the side, a glass of your choice of drink

Snacks can be fruit, veg, chips, nuts (cashew nuts are good).

Make sure you are having large portions.

All this is in aid that you are working out to build muscle during this, if you are not, you will gain unwanted weight.

Good luck, hope I have helped some how!

Mandy asks…

What is the best Muscle building supplement out there?

i need some kinda shake or something that actually works and builds muscle mass in a decent amount time? any suggestions?

The Expert answers:

Viagra makes my man muscle “build up” very quickly and it becomes a lot bigger and stronger

Lisa asks…

How does gorilla gain muscle mass from only eating plants?

A male gorilla can weigh up to 500lbs and most of their weight comes from lean muscle mass. The thing is, muscle cells are made up of mostly protein and gorillas mostly eat plants (which contain little protein). That’s like building a big strong house without any bricks and etc.

The Expert answers:

Genetics and the Amino Acids in the plants themselves. An Angus bull can weigh close to a ton and be pretty darn muscular and eats nothing but plants. All in the genetics man.

Michael asks…

i am not able to build muscle mass on my biceps?

I have been working out for a while, I’m 15 I way 150lbs 5′ 11 or 10″ I can build muscle mass everywhere except for my biceps and triceps. I can do 15+ pull ups, I can curl 35 lb dumbbells but I don’t see defninition or mass I just have strength! Ny body looks disproportionate because my arms don’t fit with the size of my chest Or back! What can I do to fix this?

The Expert answers:

You can stop over training your arms. The arms typically get a workout racking weights, loading plates, spotting others, or assisting in other exercises such as bench presses and lat pulldowns. So, they are the bodypart that gets trained the most and therefore, needs the longest recovery time.

You should never work any muscle more than once a week. That’s a 7 day recovery period. Back off your arm exercises and try a 10 day recovery time and see if that helps. Give it several months. You’re not going to see any immediate results…especially if you’ve been over-training.

If you don’t get all the results you want from your bodybuilding, give it time. You have a full decade before you’ll have your “man bones”…your lifetime max of testosterone the muscle building hormone. Muscle takes time and that’s something you have in abundance. Take advantage of that fact. And, remember, more is not always better. Only the right amount is better.

Good luck and good health!!

?

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Your Questions About Fitness

Maria asks…

How to stay at my current weight and build muscle?

I am male 5’9 and weigh 160 pounds. I have lost a ton of weight and want to start building muscle up now. I am trying to stay with in the 155-165 pound range for right now. How many calories should I eat a day so that I lose some fat and build muscle while staying in that weight range?

The Expert answers:

Hello!

Trying to lose fat while gaining muscle is not as easy as it seems because the two processes require different caloric intakes.

To gain muscle, you have to eat more than you burn, and to lose fat you have to burn more than you eat.

Nevertheless, if you are just starting out to do exercise after losing a ton of weight, you might be able to achieve both aims at the same time.

If you want to stay at that weight of 155-165 pounds, try to eat around 2,000 calories per day. If you find that you are gaining more fat than muscle, then reduce calories, but if you are not gaining muscle while keeping your fat levels constant, then you have to increase caloric intake.

Remember to eat a lot of protein if you want to build muscle. Aim to eat around 1g/lb of bodyweight which for you will be 155 grams of protein. If this is too much for you, don´t worry, but at least try to get as close to this figure as possible. Use protein powders because they are concentrated sources of protein, rather than stuffing yourself with cans and cans of tuna!

As for exercise, do resistance exercises (weighlifting, calisthenics) which will help you to build muscle combined with cardio (running, sprinting, swimming) to keep your fat levels in check.

By any means, do not push yourself too hard or you will break your body into pieces! Trust me on this one.

Also, you should consume EFAs (essential fatty acids) like omega 3,6,9 fats because they are essential (duh!), and they are very good for you.

Remember to tweak and adjust as you go along. You won´t get it right the first time, but with time you will find out how to lose fat while gaining muscle at your current weight.

Hope this helps you!

Dan C

Lizzie asks…

Supplements that help build muscle mass, while losing weight?

I am looking for a supplement that will help build muscle mass while losing weight during my workouts with dieting. Something that is safe to take. I am not looking for any pills of such sort. Any ideas? I have tried Xenadrine but it had very negative affects on me. Restless, and angry all the time.

The Expert answers:

Try using diet supplements. Maximuscle cyclone dietary or promax and progain. Look for a product called Nutrisport 90 protein, its 5k and comes in a lot of flavours. It really works and is low in fat and calories meaning you wont be gaining weight.
There are a lot of product out there and are cheaper now its the sales time so give some a go

Mandy asks…

If you cant build muscle and lose fat at the same time then?

If you cant build muscle and lose fat at the same time then why is it recommended to lift weights even when your goal is weight loss?

The Expert answers:

Because in a diet, often water weight and muscle are lost as well as fat. Lifting weights while dieting probably won’t help you gain muscle, but you will:
A) maintain the muscle you already have and lose fat instead of muscle
B)get in a good workout that will further increase your fat-burning and make your metabolism faster.

Steven asks…

What would happen if I significantly cut calories to lose fat, but continued to lift weights?

If I cut calories and continued lifting weights, would I at least maintain my muscle mass, while losing fat? I only have that last inch of fat below my belly button… The rest is all good. I can even see the top 4 muscles in the abdominal group.

The Expert answers:

Cut by how much, i wouldn’t recomend below 1500-1800! As you may become too weak to lift weights, and then it’ll just turn to flab! Continue eating the right stuff, which are low in fat, like fruit (natural sugar to keep you going) and cut down the carbs and have moderate amounts of protein. Work youself harder towards the end, when you feel you can’t go on, do 10 more! Thats the way to build muscle! Grr x

Sharon asks…

How to build up muscle while losing weight?

I’m 16, I have gone from 19 stone (266Ibs), I’m now 14Stone(196Ibs), From working hard at eating healthy and the gym. I still wanna lose at Least 42Ibs, but it’s my stomach mostly! But I wanna build muscle and I mean like a body building arms. How can I do this while losing weight, like can I take the protein powder while losing weight or is bad? Thanks!

The Expert answers:

Well I recommend first slimming down then build weight again
To lose weight fast you have to eat good and run If you want to focus on your stomach wear layers it helps
And to build muscle eat protien and lift weights between 1-12
Running will make you lose weight and lifting will build muscle and keep fat off

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Your Questions About Fitness

Donna asks…

How long does a cold or ‘flu infection take to show symptoms?

I want to track back and figure out exactly when I caught it (and from whom).

The Expert answers:

Watch this video for why you shouldn’t take the vaccines.
Http://www.republicbroadcasting.org/index.php?cmd=videos.video&videoID=147

http://www.consciousmedianetwork.com/video/112408.htm
(What’s in a flu shot)

DON’T TAKE IT!! Or you may get cancer its mass genocide; the vaccine has mercury in it!! It’s the 2d most toxic substance on earth. More people get cancer that take the vaccines, than thoes who do not. In the UK they plan to give every teenage girl free vaccine to supposedly protect them from cervical cancer. Independent scientific evidence shows that there IS no link between the HPV Papilloma virus and cancer, NO LINK! Watch video for evidence – http://www.infowars.com/articles/science/vaccines_hpv_great_hoax_exposed.htm

It’s the same with all vaccines, children’s too, can’t you see the huge increase in autism and other learning difficulties. Mercury is a deadly toxin and a baby’s undeveloped brain has no resistance to the mercury. The same aply’s to the flu jab and the Aids vaccine. The government need sick people because that the biggest money making racket after oil and war. More people make money out of cancer that those who die from it. Do your own research on the Internet, goggle dangerous vaccines or view them on you tube.

WHY do people not ask what is in the vaccine??????????????? Before they put the shot in their body? Even doctors can’t tell what the ingredients are because they just accept what their told and give it to you. Go on ask what’s in it, you won’t get any answers!

Parents of the gulf war solders asking what was in the vaccines that the army gave were told that that was classified information!! (It was actually a flu jab).

VACCINE INGREEDIENTS:
Phenol (poison)
Formaldehyde (Cancer causing)
Alum (Preservative)
Acetone (Nail polish remover)
Aluminium phosphate (toxic deodorants)
Glycerine (toxic liver, kidney and lung damage)
Monosodium glutamate (MSG allergic)
Toxic metals, lead, cadmium, aluminium and MERCUARY (thimerosal)
Faecal matter, dog kidney, monkey kidney
Horse and calf serum, pig blood, horse blood and rabbit brains
Yeast proteins
Antibiotics
RNA and DNA from growth medium including retro viruses from animals
SV40 cancer causing from monkeys associated with brain and lung tumours
Aborted baby lung tissue.
Scary ugh?

Donald asks…

how come my BMI is underweight but i look so fat?

A 14 year and 2 months old (female) child
who is 99 pounds
and is 5 feet and 4 inches tall has
a body mass index of 17.0,

k thats me but im so flubbery which exercise is the best to tone and utube videos or sources that is useful??

i need to tone my whole body

is it only about toning or what else???

please any sites or exercises wil be useful

NOTE; no exercise that can hurt ur back since i have back pains

The Expert answers:

Cardio (at least 20 mins 3X or more/week), weight training (3X or more/week), & crunches/pushups(at least 1 set of 20/day & night)= guarantee toned body!

Mandy asks…

Do women really sell their eggs for money?

How does it work? Is it safe and healthy? How much do they make? Will it prevent them from having kids one day?

The Expert answers:

Yes – and no, it doesn’t prevent one from having kids some day – not usually, anyway…however, some places require that you already have children of your own…

Here’s the lowdown from one of the most popular institutes on the planet:

Successful donor candidates should have the following attributes:
– Between ages 19 to 32.5
– Reside in the greater Washington, DC area
– College educated, in particular with degrees or pursuing degrees
– Various ethnic backgrounds
– Body mass index must not exceed 27%
– Good family health history
– High level of responsibility to meet the time requirements of the program
– Interest in the arts, sciences or athletics
– Willingness to complete 3 donation cycles

Fill out (extensive) application and mail in.

If you are eligible for participation, you will be contacted to fill out our Medical and Personal Profile Questionnaires online. You will have two weeks to complete and submit this information and if you are futher eligible, you will be contacted to schedule an interview and complete preliminary medical screening. Selected donors have completed the following:

A physical exam, including a pelvic exam and cervical cultures for sexually transmitted diseases

The most comprehensive infectious disease testing for HIV and HTLV

Hepatitis screening and other general bloodwork

Genetic screening including a chromosome karyotype and DNA testing for Cystic Fibrosis and Fragile X

A separate psychological screening, including a psychological health history and an evaluation of your comfort level with the donor egg program.

During the screening process, you will be compensated for your time after completing all of the medical screening appointments. Once you have completed the preliminary medical screening you will be activated as a donor. When a patient of GIVF selects you as their donor and you have completed the screening process, you will start your donor cycle. You will attend a class taught by the donor egg program staff to learn how to prepare and administer your medications. All medications are given by injection. You may either administer the medications to yourself, or you may elect someone who would be willing to give you daily injections. A cycle takes approximately 4 weeks, which includes a short visit to the Institute between 7:00am and 9:00am on approximately 6-8 mornings during a two week period. These visits include taking a blood sample and vaginal sonogram to assess your progress. The egg retrieval is done transvaginally, using intravenous conscious sedation.

Donors receive compensation beginning at $6000 for their time and travel at the conclusion of a completed egg donation cycle.

Your anonymity in this program is very important to us. You will be identified to patient couples by the following information: blood type, ethnic background of your mother and father, height, weight, body build, eye color, hair color and texture, years of education, occupation, and special interests and family medical history. Your identity will not be disclosed to any infertility patients.

Http://www.123donate.com/donor_who2.cfm

Michael asks…

The health benefits of vegetarianism?

I really am interested in becoming vegetarian for many reasons (personal and for the environment/animals). I wanted to for New Year’s but didnt because I was sick and my doctor didnt want any very drastic changes at that time. Now that I am over that, I want to know some of the real health benefits of becoming vegetarian. Is it ok to eat fish once in a while (i want to cut that out too eventually). I need to take fish oil for my condition btw. Can you lose weight, cuz I really need to? (even if you dont want to eat a llot of carbs?) Is it good for your organs,systems, skin? mental heath? just curious. also How do you make the transition easily, and what about eating out or at family things with very non-vegetarians? Thanks! I really want to improve my overall health with a life change, not some dumb diet. Also, I’ve recently become aware of the cruelty food animals go through and it is sooo not cool!

The Expert answers:

Vegetarians do not eat fish.

“It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases.Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood and adolescence. Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals. Vegetarians have been reported to have lower body mass indices than nonvegetarians, as well as lower rates of death from ischemic heart disease; vegetarians also show lower blood cholesterol levels; lower blood pressure; and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer.”They may also have a lower risk for some other diseases such as constipation, diverticular disease, gallstones and appendicitis. Women who eat little or no meat are four times less likely to develop breast cancer than women who eat meat reguraly.An English study that compared the diets of 6,115 vegetarians and 5,015 meat eaters for 12 years found that the meatless diet yielded a 40 percent lower risk of cancer and a 20 percent lower risk of dying from any cause. According to William Castelli, M.D., director of the famed Framingham Heart Study, vegetarians outlive meat eaters by 3 to 6 years.After reviewing 4,500 scientific studies and papers on the relationship between cancer and lifestyle, a team of 15 scientists sponsored by two leading cancer research institutions advised that those interested in reducing their risk of many types of cancer consume a diet that is mostly fruits, vegetables, cereals and legumes. They declared that up to 40 percent of cancers are preventable, with diet, physical activity and body weight appearing to have a measurable bearing on risk. In 1996 the American Cancer Society released similar guidelines, including the recommendation that red meat be excluded entirely from the diet.Heart disease does not have to be a death sentence or mean a life of cholesterol-lowering drugs and bypass surgery. By prescribing a vegetarian diet, regular exercise and spiritual nourishment for his heart patients, Dean Ornish, M.D., proved that the progression of this number-one killer can be halted and even reversed.In 1995, 683,000 people died prematurely as a result of atherosclerosis-related diseases. In other words, they died largely as a result of their meat-eating ways. This figure represents 29 percent of all deaths for that year.

Meat contains 14 times the amount of pesticides as plant foods, since pesticides get concentrated as they move up through the food chain, and since they’re more easily stored in fatty tissues.The EPA discovered that the breast milk of vegetarian women contained far lower levels of pesticides than that of average Americans. A study reported in the New England Journal of Medicine found that “The highest levels of contamination in the breast milk of the vegetarians was lower than the lowest level of contamination…(in) non-vegetarian women… The mean vegetarian levels were only 1-2% as high as the average levels in the U.S.”In the fall of 1996, a study showed that prenatal exposure to PCBs, even relatively small amounts, can impair intellectual development in children. Aside from fish, PCBs can be found in other high-fat foods such as cheese, butter, beef and pork. Women who plan to become pregnant were also advised by the study to avoid foods containing PCBs because the chemicals can remain in their bodies for years.An early ’90s EPA report found that 95 percent of human exposure to dioxin, a known carcinogen, comes from consuming red meat, fish and dairy products. Later, chicken and eggs were added to the list. Dioxin builds cumulatively in fatty tissue. The only way to flush it out is through rigorous fasting or via lactation. When a batch of dioxin-contaminated soybean feed entered the food chain in 1997, the FDA set limits on concentration at one part per trillion. If all animal foods were held to this standard, it is likely that many would not be cleared for human consumption.

In the United States, farm animals receive 30 times the antibiotics that people do–not so much to treat infection, but to make the animals grow faster on less feed. Though perfectly legal, the practice is, in effect, promoting the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Some of these bacteria can cause human diseases that physicians are finding difficult to treat. The practice is adding to the general worldwide crisis of drug-resistant disease. Each year, 60,000 Americans die because their medications were ineffective in combating bacterial strains.Every year, on average, each American becomes sick and 9,000 people die from something they ate. That something was probably of animal origin.Except in rare instances, neither the USDA nor the FDA has any regulatory powers on farms where pathogens originate. With the exception of E. Coli O157:H7, dangerous bacteria are legally considered “inherent” to raw meat. It’s up to consumers to neutralize pathogens with cooking. Two of the “legal” ones–campylobacter and salmonella–account for 80 percent of illnesses and 75 percent of deaths from meat and poultry. One hamburger can contain the meat of 100 different cows from four different countries. One infected animal can contaminate 16 tons of beef.The Centers for Disease Control estimates that campylobacter infects 70 to 90 percent of all chickens. Campylobacter infections give their human victims cramps, bloody diarrhea and fever and lead to death for up to 800 people in the United States each year. For 1,000 to 2,000 people per year, infection will lead to Guillain-Barré syndrome, a disease that requires intensive care for several weeks. A September 1997 sampling of supermarket chicken in Minnesota found 16 percent infected with an antibiotic-resistant strain of campylobacter.A USDA microbiologist declared in a Time magazine story on processed poultry that “the final product is no different than if you stuck it in the toilet and ate it.” No wonder: A 1978 USDA rule allows poultry processors to wash contaminated birds rather than discard them or cut away affected parts. “Wash,” as interpreted by the poultry industry, means “communal dunk” in what amounts to a virtual fecal soup that ensures salmonella cross-contamination.

Vegetarians have been shown to have more endurance than their meat eating counterparts.At Yale, Professor Irving Fisher designed a series of tests to compare the stamina and strength of meat-eaters against that of vegetarians. He selected men from three groups: meat-eating athletes, vegetarian athletes, and vegetarian sedentary subjects. Fisher reported the results of his study in the Yale Medical Journal. His findings do not seem to lend a great deal of credibility to the popular prejudices that hold meat to be a builder of strength.
“Of the three groups compared, the… Flesh-eaters showed far less endurance than the abstainers (vegetarians), even when the latter were leading a sedentary life.”
Overall, the average score of the vegetarians was over double the average score of the meat-eaters, even though half of the vegetarians were sedentary people, while all of the meat-eaters tested were athletes.
A comparable study was done by Dr. J. Ioteyko of the Academie de Medicine of Paris. Dr. Ioteyko compared the endurance of vegetarians and meat-eaters from all walks of life in a variety of tests. The vegetarians averaged two to three times more stamina than the meat-eaters. Even more remarkably, they took only one-fifth the time to recover from exhaustion compared to their meat-eating rivals.
Wherever and whenever tests of this nature have been done, the results have been similar. Doctors in Belgium systematically compared the number of times vegetarians and meat-eaters could squeeze a grip-meter. The vegetarians won handily with an average of 69, whilst the meat-eaters averaged only 38. As in all other studies which have measured muscle recovery time, here, too the vegetarians bounced back from fatigue far more rapidly than did the meat-eaters.
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What to eat
Eat a variety of “whole foods,” with plenty of beans, nuts, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Avoid unhealthy foods like trans fats, which are usually listed as partially hydrogenated oils. Deep-fried foods often contain trans fats. Choose margarines that use nonhydrogenated oil, like Earth Balance or Smart Balance. Although a diet consisting of Coke and French fries is technically vegan, you can’t be healthy if you eat nothing but junk food. Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 is produced by bacteria, and some experts believe that vegetarians used to get plenty of this vitamin from bacteria in drinking water. Since drinking water is now treated with chemicals that kill the bacteria, it’s important to make sure that you get enough vitamin B12 from fortified foods (like most brands of soy or rice milks, some breakfast cereals, and many brands of nutritional yeast,also eggs and milk) on a daily basis or by taking a sublingual B12 tablet of 10 mcg per day.

Iron-beans, dark green leafy vegetables (like spinach),whole grain breads, Also eat something with vitamin c when you eat something with iron, it increases absorption

Calcium-dark green leafy vegetables (spinach, broccoli, soymilk)

Protein-MYTH: “Vegetarians get little protein.”

Fact: Plant foods offer abundant protein. Vegetables are around 23% protein on average, beans 28%, grains 13%, and even fruit has 5.5%. For comparison, human breast milk is only 5% (designed for the time in our lives when our protein needs are as high as they’ll ever be). The US Recommended Daily Allowance is 8%, and the World Health Organization recommends 4.5%.
Isn’t really hard to get protein, just eat a variety of foods, good sources are beans, brown rice, nuts, whole grain breads,soy foods

Omega-3 fatty acids-flax seeds/oil,walnuts,canola oil

Zinc-pumpkin seeds (best source), beans and lentils, yeast, nuts, seeds and whole grain cereals

Selenium-Brazil nuts are a particularly good source of selenium, so try to eat a couple every day. Eating a small bag of mixed unsalted nuts can be a convenient way to get your daily selenium intake, but make sure it contains Brazils. Bread and eggs also provide some selenium.

Vitamin D- Vitamin D, often called the sunshine vitamin, is another common deficiency in those not drinking vitamin D fortified milk. Synthetic vitamin D is added to both cow’s milk and most brands of soy milk today.

Vitamins A (beta carotene),C, K, E and Folate-variety of fruits and veggies

Iodine-Iodine is a trace mineral that’s important for healthy thyroid function. Table salt is the most common and reliable source of iodine in Americans’ diets. (However, sodium in processed foods usually does not contain iodine.) If you don’t consume table salt, you can get iodine from a multivitamin or from kelp tablets.

Source(s):
http://www.pcrm.org/health/veginfo/vsk/f…

Http://michaelbluejay.com/veg/natural.ht…

Http://goveg.com/healthconcerns.asp……

Http://www.chooseveg.com/health_overview…

Http://www.cspinet.org/eatinggreen/index…

Order a free vegetarian starter kit
http://www.tryveg.com/cfi/toc/

Laura asks…

I am 25 and my ldl is 186 and cholesterol is 263?

Im in shock im a female I weigh 190 &I’m 5ft 7in I know im around 30lbs overweight but what can I do? I don’t eat fried foods I bake everything and I try to exercise daily at home .inbetween caring for my 3 young children any suggestions of what else I may do?

The Expert answers:

Your body mass index is 29.8 and you have overweight. Overweight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, hypertension and heart disease (coronary heart disease).
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) – High LDL level, corresponding to much higher rates for developing symptomatic cardiovascular disease events
Total cholesterol – High risk.
Risk for cardiac disease is assessed by dividing the total cholesterol level by the HDL level. Target values are < 5 for men and < 4.4 for women.
Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and early cardiovascular disease.
Take statin drug in consultation with your doctor. Also control your high blood cholesterol by diet and exercise. (Brisk walking for 30 minutes daily)
Adopt DASH diet (Mediterranean diet). Eat a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet, which includes cottage cheese, fat-free milk, fish, vegetables, poultry, and egg whites. Use monounsaturated oils such as olive, peanut, and canola oils or polyunsaturated oils such as corn, safflower, soy, sunflower, cottonseed, and soybean oils. Avoid foods with excess fat in them such as meat (especially liver and fatty meat), egg yolks, whole milk, cream, butter, shortening, pastries, cakes, cookies, gravy, peanut butter, chocolate, olives, potato chips, coconut, cheese (other than cottage cheese), coconut oil, palm oil, and fried foods.
Please note that I am not a medical professional.

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Your Questions About Fitness

Robert asks…

What are the best exercises for a beginner to workout with that will build muscle?

I’ve been told that my chances are slim to none for building muscle at my age.
I’m 44 and just starting. I only have a bench and some free weights. Any tips that will work for sure?
i weigh 185 6 ft

The Expert answers:

Squats
Bench press
Bent Over Rows

Those 3 exercises are the best overall. You must do other minor exercises to go with them but if I had to do only 3 exercises and no more those would be it.

Why? Squats do your legs and people neglect doing those but they are very important it also does your back too. The bench press does your chest and arms too. It is chest centered but it works your biceps on top of it. Bent over rows does your back and arms too. So these 3 exercises really train the main points well and will make you strong in tons of other minor places they train as secondary areas.

Steven asks…

What are some top workouts to build muscle that a man wants?

Heyy im 17 and weighing 145 ibs and in really good shape however want to build muscle and get ripped this year in place of sports. What are some top workouts and best foods to eat during Breakfast lunch and dinner that will help me get the best results in the least amount of time?

The Expert answers:

Www.bodybuilding.com, no one on yahoo answers will be able to help you in the best possible way use bodybuilding.com forums they have tips on training for beginners and eating plans.

Ruth asks…

What type of yoga builds muscle the most?

I want to try yoga, but there are so many different types I don’t know where to start. I was wondering what kind of yoga is the best for building muscle and getting toned.

The Expert answers:

Hi there, little descripton about yoga :

Yoga is a general term to refer to at least 8 types of practice, each one slightly different from the other. Probably the yoga practice that can be considered as a more general way of doing physical yoga is Hatha, which can include many of the yoga disciplines that require physical practice. This type of yoga is gentle and the pace is slow, which makes it a good choice for beginners.

Madonna, Sting and Ashley Judd an artist who does yoga practice. To choose the kind of yoga, you can contact the nearest yoga practitioner of your city

John asks…

Is it possible to lose body fat and build muscle at the same time?

Does anybody know if its possible to build muscle and lose body fat at the same time? The reason is because I want to get into bodybuilding so thats the reason why.

The Expert answers:

It’s possible for a beginner in the first 6-12 weeks of training using any workout program at all, so when first starting exercise it doesn’t matter what you’re doing. After those first weeks though you body’s adapted, so you need to change up your workouts to something more effective.

Lisa asks…

What is the best way for a small person to build noticable muscle?

I’m 5′ 10″, and weigh about 120. I’d like to really build muscle, but have always found it hard to build noticable muscle. Most of all, I’d like to have strong arms. Any suggestions?

The Expert answers:

Building muscle is all about getting enough calories from your diet. For a hardgainer like ectomorphs, this means even more of a caloric excess than normal people (hardgainers are people who eat a lot and are still skinny and have a hard time building muscle).

What you should do is get at least 50% carbs, 30% proteins and 20% fats over 5-6+ meals per day in a caloric excess of your RMR (resting metabolic rate). Increase your calories by 10% each week until you start gaining weight. You may be surprised at how much it takes if you’re not used to eating a lot. Try to stick with healthy options including low GI high fiber carbs, lean proteins and good fats.

For your training routine, stick with mostly compound movements. Lower volume, heavy weights and low to moderate rep levels to failure on the last set. You want to keep the volume low so that you’re not burning too many calories or raising your metabolism higher than it needs to be. Most people, especially beginners, tend to do too much in a workout anyway and most of the time it’s not necessary. Hang back from cardio for now and just focus on weights. Be sure to perform the exercises through their full range and try incorporating eccentrics (negatives) as well.

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